Understanding ADHD – A Guide for Parents

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ADHD, which stands for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects many children worldwide. It can significantly impact a child’s ability to focus, regulate impulses, and control hyperactivity. Recognizing the signs of ADHD is crucial for early intervention and support. In this blog post, we will delve into what ADHD is, common symptoms, and how to determine if your child may have ADHD

Please note, this guide is not intended to be diagnostic, rather a brief guide to understanding ADHD. If after reading you have any concerns, please contact a relevant professional. 

What is ADHD? 

ADHD is a condition that typically begins in childhood. It is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that can interfere with a person’s daily life and functioning. ADHD is not simply a result of laziness or lack of discipline; it is a neurobiological condition.

Symptoms of ADHD can vary from child to child, but they generally fall into two categories: inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Children who display inattentive behaviours may have difficulty staying focused on tasks, make careless mistakes, be easily distracted, struggle with organizing tasks, and exhibit forgetfulness.

On the other hand, children with hyperactivity and impulsivity may appear excessively talkative, fidget or squirm often, have difficulty staying seated, interrupt others frequently, and struggle to wait their turn. It’s important to note that occasional inattention or hyperactive behaviour is normal in children, but in ADHD, these symptoms are persistent and significantly impact their daily life.

Children with ADHD may exhibit a range of behaviours that can vary in intensity and frequency. Here are some common behaviours often associated with ADHD:


Children with ADHD may struggle with maintaining focus and attention. They may have difficulty staying on task, frequently become easily distracted, and have trouble organizing and completing assignments or activities. They may also struggle to listen attentively and follow instructions.


Hyperactivity is characterized by excessive and often impulsive physical movement. Children with ADHD may exhibit restless behaviours, such as constant fidgeting, squirming, or tapping their feet or hands. They may have difficulty staying seated, even when expected to do so, and often feel an internal drive to be in constant motion.


Impulsivity refers to acting without thinking or considering consequences. Children with ADHD may have trouble inhibiting their impulses, leading to impulsive behaviours such as interrupting conversations, blurting out answers without waiting their turn, and engaging in risk-taking behaviours without fully assessing the potential dangers.

Poor Organization and Time Management

Children with ADHD may struggle with organizing their belongings, completing tasks, and managing their time effectively. They may have difficulty keeping track of assignments, frequently lose items, and exhibit poor planning skills. This can result in challenges with meeting deadlines and fulfilling responsibilities.

Emotional Instability

Emotional regulation can be challenging for children with ADHD. They may experience intense emotions and have difficulty managing frustration, anger, or disappointment. Their emotional responses may be unpredictable and disproportionate to the situation, leading to emotional outbursts or mood swings.

Difficulty with Transitions

Children with ADHD often find it challenging to transition from one activity or setting to another. They may become resistant or anxious when faced with changes, struggle with adapting to new routines, and require additional support and structure to navigate transitions successfully.

It is important to note that not all children with ADHD exhibit the same behaviours, and the presentation of symptoms can vary from one individual to another. Additionally, the behaviours associated with ADHD should be assessed in the context of their impact on the child’s daily functioning, relationships, and overall well-being.

Recognising Individual Differences 

It is important to recognise that not all children with ADHD will display the same set of symptoms or exhibit them with the same intensity. Some children with ADHD may predominantly demonstrate inattentive behaviours, often referred to as the “quiet” type. These children may struggle with sustaining focus, organizing tasks, and easily becoming forgetful. They may appear daydreaming, avoidant, or lost in their own thoughts. On the other hand, some children display more hyperactive and impulsive behaviours. They may be excessively energetic, have difficulty sitting still, interrupt others frequently, and act impulsively without considering the consequences.

There is some evidence to suggest that ADHD can present differently between boys and girls, leading to potential disparities in diagnosis and identification. Boys with ADHD often exhibit more externalizing behaviours, such as hyperactivity and impulsivity, which tend to be more noticeable and disruptive in the classroom setting. As a result, boys are often diagnosed with ADHD at a higher rate than girls.

On the other hand, girls with ADHD may exhibit more internalizing behaviours, which can be less disruptive and are more easily overlooked. They may display symptoms of inattention, daydreaming, and difficulties with executive functions, such as organization and time management. Girls with ADHD often go undiagnosed or receive a diagnosis later in life due to the subtler presentation of their symptoms.

Sensory Sensitivities

In addition to the core symptoms of ADHD, many children with the disorder experience sensory sensitivities. Sensory processing refers to how the brain interprets and responds to sensory stimuli from the environment. Children with ADHD may have heightened or decreased sensitivity to various sensory inputs, including sound, light, touch, taste, and smell.

Sensory sensitivities can manifest in different ways. Some children may be hypersensitive and become easily overwhelmed by sensory stimuli, leading to discomfort, irritability, or even sensory overload. For instance, loud noises, bright lights, or certain textures may trigger strong reactions. On the other hand, some children may be hyposensitive, seeking out intense sensory experiences and exhibiting sensory-seeking behaviours. They may fidget, crave movement, or engage in behaviours that provide sensory stimulation.

Recognizing and addressing sensory sensitivities is crucial for children with ADHD. Sensory challenges can impact attention, behaviour, and overall well-being. Providing a sensory-friendly environment that accommodates individual needs can help children with ADHD regulate their sensory experiences and enhance their focus and self-regulation skills.

Unique Strengths

ADHD is often associated with challenges and difficulties, but it’s important to recognize that individuals with ADHD also possess unique strengths and positive traits. Here are some common strengths and positives associated with ADHD:


Many individuals with ADHD have vibrant imaginations and creative thinking abilities. They often think outside the box, approach problems in unconventional ways, and come up with innovative ideas. Their ability to make connections between seemingly unrelated concepts can lead to unique insights and solutions.


While ADHD is characterized by difficulties with attention, individuals with ADHD can experience periods of intense focus and concentration on tasks that genuinely interest them. This hyperfocus can lead to high levels of productivity and exceptional performance in areas of personal interest or passion.

Energy and Enthusiasm

People with ADHD often exhibit high levels of energy and enthusiasm. They can bring a contagious enthusiasm to projects, social interactions, and creative endeavours. Their enthusiasm can inspire others and contribute to a vibrant and dynamic environment.

Out-of-the-Box Thinking

ADHD individuals tend to think divergently, making unexpected connections and seeing possibilities that others may overlook. They have a knack for seeing alternative perspectives and coming up with innovative solutions. This ability to think outside the box can lead to breakthrough ideas and creative problem-solving.

Resilience and Adaptability

Living with ADHD requires individuals to navigate daily challenges and setbacks. As a result, many develop resilience, adaptability, and the ability to bounce back from setbacks. They often demonstrate persistence in the face of obstacles and can find creative ways to adapt and thrive in different situations.

Hyperactive Energy

While hyperactivity can be seen as a challenge, it can also be channelled into positive outlets. People with ADHD often have a surplus of physical energy, which can be harnessed in sports, creative pursuits, and other activities that require physical movement. This energy can contribute to an active and engaged lifestyle.

It’s important to celebrate and nurture these strengths and positives in individuals with ADHD. By recognizing and leveraging these attributes, we can empower individuals with ADHD to embrace their unique abilities and cultivate a sense of confidence, self-worth, and achievement. Emphasizing strengths also helps to create a more inclusive and accepting society that values neurodiversity.

Common Misconceptions

Unfortunately, there are many misconceptions surrounding ADHD that can lead to misunderstandings and stigmatization. In this section I want to explore common misconceptions about ADHD, including its association with “naughty behaviour” and parenting, aiming to dispel these myths and promote a more accurate understanding of the condition.

ADHD is Naughty Behaviour Caused by Poor Parenting

One of the most prevalent misconceptions about ADHD is that it stems from a child’s naughty behaviour or poor parenting. This belief is inaccurate and unfair. ADHD is a neurobiological condition, meaning it is rooted in differences in brain structure and functioning, not in behavioural choices or parenting styles. The disorder is not caused by permissive parenting, lack of discipline, or inadequate boundaries.

ADHD is Simply a Lack of Focus or Laziness

Another misconception is that ADHD is nothing more than a lack of focus or laziness. In reality, ADHD is a complex condition that affects multiple aspects of a child’s life, including attention, impulse control, organization, and executive functioning skills. It is not a matter of willpower or a conscious choice to be inattentive or unmotivated.

ADHD Only Affects Children

ADHD is often associated solely with children, but it is important to recognize that the disorder can persist into adolescence and adulthood. Many individuals continue to experience symptoms and face challenges associated with ADHD throughout their lives. Undiagnosed and untreated ADHD in adulthood can lead to difficulties in education, employment, relationships, and overall well-being.

Medication is the Only Solution

While medication can be a helpful component of treatment for some individuals with ADHD, it is not the only solution, nor is it suitable or necessary for everyone. ADHD is a multidimensional condition that requires a comprehensive approach, including behavioural interventions, counselling, education, and support systems. Treatment plans should be tailored to each individual’s specific needs and preferences.

ADHD is Over diagnosed

There is a misconception that ADHD is over diagnosed, leading to the belief that it is a “trendy” or exaggerated diagnosis. However, ADHD diagnoses are made based on established criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and require a thorough evaluation by trained professionals. While it is important to ensure accurate diagnoses, dismissing or downplaying the condition can prevent individuals from accessing the necessary support and interventions.

What Next?

If you are concerned that your child may have ADHD and that it is negatively impacting them, it is crucial to seek advice from a health professional such as a health visitor, GP or paediatrician. They are then able to refer your child for a full assessment. This would include information from parents, teachers, and other caregivers.  

There is a great deal that can be done to support a child who has ADHD both at home and at school or other settings. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage ADHD symptoms. Medication can be an effective component of treatment, but it is not a standalone solution. 

Behavioural interventions, supporting a child to understand their own needs and learning strategies to manage them can be helpful depending on the age of the child. Parents and teachers may need to access support in how to help support a child to focus, manage their sensory needs and improve coping strategies and organisational skills. 

Environmental modifications can be instrumental in creating a sensory-friendly setting. Minimizing distractions, providing quiet spaces, adjusting lighting, and offering alternative seating options can help reduce sensory overload. Implementing sensory breaks and incorporating sensory tools, such as fidget toys or weighted blankets, can also support self-regulation.

Creating a supportive environment at home and school is essential. Collaboration with teachers and implementing strategies like visual schedules, clear expectations, and consistent routines can greatly benefit children with ADHD.

Education and awareness among family members, teachers, and peers are also key to fostering understanding and empathy. Fostering open communication and understanding among family members, teachers, and peers is essential. Educating others about ADHD and sensory sensitivities promotes empathy, reduces stigma, and encourages a supportive environment that embraces individual differences.


ADHD is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that that manifests differently in each child, with potential gender variations and the presence of sensory sensitivities. It can significantly impact a child’s life by disrupting education, relationships and even safety. Recognizing the unique differences and challenges that a child faces is crucial for providing comprehensive support to children with ADHD 

Through a comprehensive assessment, diagnosis, and a combination of parent support, behavioural interventions, educational support, and sometimes medication, children with ADHD, alongside the adults around them can learn to manage symptoms, improve focus and attention, and thrive. 

If after reading this, you would like to talk things through, please don’t hesitate to reach out and arrange a free 30 minute consultation. You don’t have to do this alone. 


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